Up to now we’ve mostly been working inside the city walls, where space is short and buildings necessarily packed
Historic map of Oxford in 1643
closely together. We’re now going to turn to the area outside the walls. In this installment, we’re going to turn back to some theory.
First we need to talk about why businesses decide to set up outside the walls of the city. After all, they are forgoing the protection that walls bring, so there must be some good reasons for it. It turns out the reasons are pretty simple:
- Avoiding authority: This is monetary, avoiding taxes, but also includes regulation, attention of the town watch, even to avoiding the prying eyes of neighbors. The city’s authority ends with the city walls, and some people find their business flourishes where there is less oversight.
- Accessing markets: Gates into the city are notorious choke points for people entering the city. The gates typically only open at certain times, guards ask questions, and just the physical size of the gate all conspire to leave large numbers of people waiting outside to get in. And where there are large numbers of people waiting or stranded, there is money to be made selling goods and services to them.
- Space: In many cities, space is at a premium. So businesses that require lots of space such as cattle markets, or that need space from neighbors, such as tanners, will often set up outside the city walls.
Historic map of Bristol in 1582
What this leads to is a mini city just outside the city walls, where crowds are most likely to form. This is where taverns and inns, and potentially more reputable shops can be found as well.
As you move away from the gate, more space opens up and larger markets and establishments have more room. Typically these spread out along the main roads leading away from the gate. Over time, some side roads may form if the population of the city continues to grow.
You might guess that citizens of the city are unlikely to approve of markets being established outside their walls. They will object to being undercut on price, object to the less savory businesses that occur outside the walls, and complain about customers journeying to their city experiencing the underside of the city before coming through the gates.
Over time, as the city outside the gates grows, the city will expand its limits to incorporate land outside the walls. Then the pressure will grow to expand the walls to encompass the new land. Once funds can be raised to build the wall, the city will expand and cannibalize the old walls.
Next time we will run through using CC3’s automatic building tool to populate the area outside the walls.
First buildings with effects on
Ok, we’re going to spend time today filling in a block section with houses. We’re going to be using the House command from CD3 extensively, so you should be an expert in it once we’re done.
The house command is in the upper left corner of your toolbar and looks like a roof seen from the top – a screen shot is to the right (you can see the “House” tooltip as well):
We won’t spend a lot of time going through the different options, but I recommend that you review two sections of the online help (Help>Search):
- House Shapes: Good information about what each shaped house is, and the order CC3 expects corner points to be placed. Generally you will place two points that define the long axis of the roof, but the interpretation of the third point varies from shape to shape.
- Roof Types: Gables and styles of roofs.
Scrolls through the House settings part of the dialog to look at available styles. I recommend that once you have found a style you like, place one or two buildings and scroll out until the map is roughly the size that you will use. Some of the house styles have wonderful detail that looks great in-close, but which compresses to a black blob when you scroll out a long way.
I’m using the CD3 B Fantasy varicolor symbols. The roof lines look great at medium resolution, and I plan to not show the individual buildings when I am using a city-wide map. Varicolor means that the building will pick up the currently selected color – this gives you flexibility to change colors periodically to add some needed variation to the buildings.
Start with rectangular buildings – they are most common in real houses, and easiest to place.
City block almost completely filled in
I like moving along a major road, placing one building after another. Here are some tips:
- For a medieval city, don’t worry too much about getting each building front exactly lined up with the buildings next to it – there will be variations in real life. But do use the “Parallel To (F11)” and “Perpendicular to (F12)” snaps (Tools>Snaps) to ensure that buildings square to the road or to each other.
- The roof line will run parallel to the first side you draw – so for most buildings you will want to put your first point at the street and the second point well back from the street so that the line is perpendicular to the street (the F12 snap is made for this – put your first point, press F12 and select the edge of the street, now your next point is constrained so the wall must be perpendicular to that street).
- If you are using varicolor symbols, set the color slightly darker than your landmark buildings and change the color a little from time to time. It will give your city a subtle but more realistic look.
- Use a small number of building types and roof types – it will make the city look more cohesive.
- Every building will need access to the road. Better establishments should have two ways to get to the road (e.g. a front door for visitors and a back door for trash and other things). Access can be circuitous, through an alley, but a building can’t be used if no one can get to it. But don’t worry too much if you block access to an occasional building. You have several ways to explain it:
Next time we will fill in a few more details in this section and talk about rendering effects – they turn the most mundane map into something wonderful. Then for a break we will turn to mapping some sections outside the city wall, where the CD3 automatic tools really can shine.